How do I use APA in-text citations?

CWI Writing Center: APA In-text Citations

In-text citations give the original author credit and help the writer AVOID PLAGIARISM. Please refer to the APA Manual (6th edition) or APA website ( for more details on specifics and variants of in-text citations.

Basic In-text Citation Format:

  • Parenthetical references have parentheses ( ) with the author’s last name(s), the date of publication, and the page number all separated by commas. (See chart for examples.)
  • In general, most in-text citations will use only the year for the date of publication.
  • The period of the sentence is after the parenthetical reference, except in a block quote.

Note: When there are multiple authors, use "and" in signal phrases between the last names of the final two authors and use the ampersand (&) in parenthetical references between the last names of the final two authors.

Author Mentioned in the Signal Phrase Example:

Author Mentioned in the Parenthetical Reference Example

Note: The first word of the parenthetical reference should match the first word of the References entry.

For more information, contact the Writing Center.