How do I use APA in-text citations?

CWI Writing Center: APA In-text Citations

In-text citations give the original author credit and help the writer AVOID PLAGIARISM. Please refer to the APA Manual (6th edition) or APA website (apastyle.org) for more details on specifics and variants of in-text citations.

Basic In-text Citation Format:

  • Parenthetical references have parentheses ( ) with the author’s last name(s), the date of publication, and the page number all separated by commas. (See chart for examples.)
  • In general, most in-text citations will use only the year for the date of publication.
  • The period of the sentence is after the parenthetical reference, except in a block quote.

Note: When there are multiple authors, use "and" in signal phrases between the last names of the final two authors and use the ampersand (&) in parenthetical references between the last names of the final two authors.

Author Mentioned in the Signal Phrase Example:

Author Mentioned in the Parenthetical Reference Example

Note: The first word of the parenthetical reference should match the first word of the References entry.

For more information, contact the Writing Center.